Previously Rand Fishkin posted an excellent list of search engine ranking factors which I wrote about, “How Search Engines Rank Web Pages“. After feedback was provided from many search engine optimization professionals, he’s presenting a list of the top ten.
1. Title Tag
2. Anchor Text of Links
3. Keyword Use in Document Text
4. Accessibility of Document
5. Links to Document from Site-Internal Pages
6. Primary Subject Matter of Site
7. External Links to Linking Pages
8. Link Popularity of Site in Topical Community
9. Global Link Popularity of Site
10. Keyword Spamming (not doing it)
Depending on who you ask, this list is a bit of a moving target. For example, if you ask a content focused SEO compared to a black hat SEO, you might get different perspectives that drive different answers.
You can read the full article with or without SEO comments on SEOmoz